Some jurisdictions have established a range of crimes to prevent unjustified interference with the use of a service animal. See for example California Penal Code section 365.6:

365.6.  (a) Any person who, with no legal justification, intentionally interferes with the use of a guide dog by harassing or obstructing the guide dog user or his or her guide dog, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding six months, or by a fine of not less than one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500) nor more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500), or both.

(b) As used in this section, "guide dog" means any guide dog or seeing-eye dog which was trained by a person licensed under Chapter 9.5 (commencing with Section 7200) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code or as defined in the regulations implementing Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-336), or trained by a school recognized in another state to train guide or seeing-eye dogs.

(c) Nothing in this section is intended to affect any civil remedies available for a violation of this section.

It also can be a crime to negligently permit a dog to injure an assistance dog. California Penal Code section 600.2 states:

600.2.  (a) It is unlawful and constitutes an infraction for any person to permit any dog which is owned, harbored, or controlled by him or her to cause injury to or the death of any guide, signal, or service dog, as defined by Section 54.1 of the Civil Code, while the guide, signal, or service dog is in discharge of its duties.

(b) In any case in which a defendant is convicted of a violation of this section, the defendant shall be ordered to make restitution to the disabled person who has custody or ownership of the guide, signal, or service dog for any veterinary bills and replacement costs of the dog if it is disabled or killed.

Intentionally injuring an assistance dog can also be a misdemeanor. The following is from California Penal Code section 600.5:

600.5.  (a) Any person who intentionally causes injury to or the death of any guide, signal, or service dog, as defined by Section 54.1 of the Civil Code, while the dog is in discharge of its duties, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars ($5,000), or by both a fine and imprisonment.

(b) In any case in which a defendant is convicted of a violation of this section, the defendant shall be ordered to make restitution to the disabled person who has custody or ownership of the dog for any veterinary bills and replacement costs of the dog if it is disabled or killed.