American Veterinary Medical Association, Task Force on Canine Aggression and Human-Canine Interactions, A Community Approach to Dog Bite Prevention. Highly informative, well written, very authoritative paper that describes the dog bite problem, suggests its causes, provides specific suggestions to lessen it, and presents some other important materials. A must-read! However, the model legislation for the control of dangerous dogs is weak. To see stronger laws that have been enacted, see the Los Angeles County Code provisions regarding animals, by clicking here and then selecting "Title 10: Animals."

Bini, John K. MD; Cohn, Stephen M. MD; Acosta, Shirley M. RN, BSN; McFarland, Marilyn J. RN, MS; Muir, Mark T. MD; Michalek, Joel E. PhD; for the TRISAT Clinical Trials Group, Mortality, Mauling, and Maiming by Vicious Dogs, Annals of Surgery (April 2011, Vol. 253, Issue 4, pp. 791–797). Review of 82 dog attacks in which the breed of dog was recorded, with specific emphasis on morbidity rates, hospital charges, and risk of death. Concludes that pit bull attacks are greater in every category studied. 

Sacks JJ, Sinclair L, Gilchrist J, Golab GC, Lockwood R. Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998. JAVMA 2000;217:836-840. Summarizes breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks during a 20-year period, then goes on to provide great detail about dog bites including the causes and how they can be prevented. "Must" reading for anyone interested in this topic, but keep in mind that the article was published years ago.

Quinlan KP, Sacks JJ. Hospitalizations for Dog Bite Injuries [letter] JAMA 1999; 281:232-233. Data are provided on the 6,000 hospitalizations for dog bites in 1994, and medical care cost estimates are provided for medically treated dog bites.

Duffy, D.L., et al., Breed differences in canine aggression, Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.04.006. A study derived from a survey of the owners of more than 30 breeds of dogs using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (CBARQ). Particularly useful when discussing aggression in breeds other than pit bulls and Rottweilers. 

CDC. Dog-Bite-Related Fatalities - United States, 1995-1996. MMWR 1997;46:463-7. Details are provided on the approximately 12 annual deaths from dog attacks. Data are provided on dog breeds involved in fatal attacks from 1979. Recommendations on reducing dog bites are included.

Sacks JJ, Kresnow M, Houston B. Dog bites: how big a problem? Injury Prevention 1996;2:52-54. This article is based on a 1994 survey. It concluded that in the United States 4.7 million people per year are bitten by dogs. Of these, approximately 800,000 people require medical attention. That is, each year 1.8% of the U.S. population is bitten by a dog, and 0.3% of the U.S. population seeks medical care for a bite. Injury Prevention is a publication of the Centers for Disease Control.

Sacks JJ, Kresnow M. Dog bites: still a problem? Injury Prevention 2008 Oct;14(5):296-301. This is the update of the prior study, cited in the previous paragraph. The researchers surveyed 9684 households during 2001-2003 and compared their findings with results from the survey conducted in 1994. They determined that 4.5 million persons were bitten each year; of these, 885 000 required medical attention (19%). They concluded that dog bites continue to be a public health problem affecting 1.5% of the US population annually.

Sacks JJ, Lockwood R, Hornreich J, Sattin RW. Fatal dog attacks, 1989-1994. Pediatrics 1996;97:891-5. Details are provided on the deaths from dog attacks, and data are provided on dog breeds involved in fatal attacks. Note that this study was done two decades ago and for that reason refers to only 12 fatalities per year, rather than 30 t0 35 fatalities per year, which has been the case in the USA for the past several years. 

Gershman KA, Sacks JJ, Wright JC. Which dogs bite? A case-control study of risk factors. Pediatrics 1994;93:913-7. Biting and non-biting dogs in Denver are compared. Biting dogs were more likely to be male, unneutered, and chained.

Sosin DM, Sacks JJ, Sattin RW. Causes of non-fatal injuries in the United States, 1986. Accident Analysis and Prevention 1992; 24:685-687. Data collected from the National Health Interview Survey estimated that there were 585,000 dog bites requiring medical attention in 1986. Dog bites were the 12th leading cause of non-fatal injuries for all age groups in the United States.

Sacks JJ, Sattin RW, Bonzo SE. Dog bite-related fatalities in the United States, 1979-1988. JAMA 1989;262:1489-92. Provides details on the annual deaths from dog attacks and data on dog breeds involved in fatal attacks. Note that the number of deaths per year is now between 30 and 35 (see The Dog Bite Epidemic: A Primer).

Weiss HB, Friedman DI, Coben JH. Incidence of dog bite injuries treated in emergency departments, JAMA 1998;279:53. This research was updated with emergency department statistics of 2001, which demonstrated a rise in the number of patients treated: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nonfatal Dog Bite–Related Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments — United States, 2001, MMWR 2003;52:605-610. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is published by the CDC.

Nelson K. One City's Experience - Why Pit Bulls Are More Dangerous and Breed-Specific Legislation is Justified. Muni Lawyer, July/August 2005, Vol. 46, No. 4. This article details the victory of the City of Denver over the Colorado legislature when the latter attempted to overturn Denver's ban against pit bulls. The city went to court and introduced actual proof that pit bulls are more dangerous than other dogs, justifying the city's ban.

Barnes JE, Boat BW, Putnam FW, Dates HF, Mahlman AR, Ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs as a marker for deviant behaviors: implications for risk assessment. (Abstract.) J Interpers Violence. 2006 Dec;21(12):1616-34.

Laurie Ragatz M.A., William Fremouw Ph.D., Tracy Thomas M.A., Katrina McCoy B.S., Vicious Dogs: The Antisocial Behaviors and Psychological Characteristics of Owners. (Abstract.) Journal of Forensic Sciences, Volume 54, Issue 3, pages 699–703, May 2009.

Allison M. Schenk B.A., Laurie L. Ragatz M.S., William J. Fremouw Ph.D, A.B.P.P., Vicious Dogs Part 2: Criminal Thinking, Callousness, and Personality Styles of Their Owners. (Abstract.) Journal of Forensic Sciences, Volume 57, Issue 1, pages 152–159, January 2012. 

Lockwood R. Humane concerns about dangerous dog laws. University of Dayton Law Review 1988;13:267-77. 

Lockwood, The Ethology and Epidemiology of Canine Aggression, in James Serpell (ed.) The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behavior & Interactions with People, (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press), pp. 132-138.

Lockwood R, Rindy K. Are "pit bulls" different? An analysis of the pit bull terrier controversy. Anthrozoos 1987;1:2-8. 

Companion Animals Section and Division of Higher Education Programs. Guidelines for regulating dangerous or vicious dogs. Washington, DC: Humane Society of the United States, August 1987. 

Lockwood R. Dangerous dogs revisited. The Humane Society News 1992;37:20-2. 

Dog Bites - Basic Behavioral Principles and Misunderstood Words, in David Favre and Peter L. Borchelt, Animal Law and Dog Behavior, (Lawyers & Judges Publishing Co.) pp. 299 et seq.

American Veterinary Medical Association. AVMA Welfare Forum: human-canine interactions. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1121-54. 

Wise JK, Yang JJ. Dog and cat ownership, 1991-1998. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994;204:1166-7.

Voelker R. Dog bites recognized as public health problem. JAMA 1997;277:278,280.

Williams R, Williams D. Dogs that bite. BMJ 1992; 304:116.

Sacks JJ, Sattin RW, Bonzo SE. Dog bite-related fatalities from 1979 through 1988. JAMA 1989;262:1489-92.

Lockwood R. Humane concerns about dangerous dog laws. University of Dayton Law Review 1988;13:267-77.

Lockwood R, Rindy K. Are "pit bulls" different? An analysis of the pit bull terrier controversy. Anthrozoos 1987;1:2-8.

Sosin DM, Sacks JJ, Sattin RW. Causes of nonfatal injuries in the United States, 1986. Accid Anal Prev 1992;24:685-7.

Companion Animals Section and Division of Higher Education Programs. Guidelines for regulating dangerous or vicious dogs. Washington, DC: Humane Society of the United States, August 1987.

Lockwood R. Dangerous dogs revisited. The Humane Society News 1992;37:20-2.

American Veterinary Medical Association. AVMA Welfare Forum: human-canine interactions. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1121-54.

Ninth Revision of the ICD (ICD- 9) has been used for classifying causes of death. The supplementary classification of external causes of injury and poisoning is used for mortality coding. This document provides information about the classification of dog bite injuries.

The Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention of The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control monitors trends in unintentional injuries in the United States, conducts research to better understand risk factors, and evaluates interventions to prevent these injuries. In additional to materials on dog bites, the Division's web site has valuable information about other important topics, such as car seats, drownings and bicycle-related injuries.

Clifton, Merritt. 15 Real-Life Tips for Surviving a Dog Attack